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collective bargaining

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Traditional employment relations frameworks:
1. Industrial relations:  
Three key actors: management, labor, government. There is interdependencies between actors. HOWEVER, the theory cannot fully explain “how strategies and practice of firms operating across national borders and national institutional environment 2. Political Economy:

Comparative institutional approaches emphasized the importance of distinct national institutional configurations that result in distinctive national capitalisms and structure firm strategies and practices. Network-based approaches

1. Global Production Networks
The approach focuses on how companies manage their global operations; three elements - value, power, embeddedness. 2. Global Value Chain
With the globalization of production and trade, firms have increasingly found themselves interacting with and within value chains that cross national and firm boundaries. GVC framework seek better understanding on relationships between lead firm and suppliers, and the governance structures used to coordinate them. Producer-driven value chain

Buyer-driven value chain
lead firm - refers to the firm that is essentially driving the level and type of coordination between the two firms. e.g. multinational corporation Market value:
舉例:bicycle industry (contracting relationship)
suppliers buy and sell standard products -> low levels of lead firm influence tasks are simple/easily codified -> low workforce skill levels little capability is required -> low level of employment stability low coordination -> high levels of local institutional influence Modular value: (products/services based on customer specifications) 舉例:American eletronics industry

low coordination (easily to codified) -> low levels of lead firm influence high supplier competence -> moderate workforce skill levels/employment stability high levels of local institutional influence

Relational value:
舉例:automotive industry
communication between lead firm and suppliers + tasks are not easily codified -> moderate levels of lead firm influence high workforce skill levels/employment stability
both local/lead for institutional influence
Captive value (suppliers rely on lead firms for resources…) 舉例:food industires
lead firm has high influence on suppliers
low skills are required; low levels of employment stability
供應商的體制或是經濟狀況會影響lead firm挑選供應商所以不僅lead firm, suppliers的institutional context也頗為重要 -> both local/lead for institutional influence Hierarchical value: (vertically integrated subsidiaries)
舉例:大部分MNCs, IT industies
High levels of lead firm influence
high skills are required; high levels of employment stability Lead firm’s institutional influence (paper給的理由是供應商會離總公司比較近?!看看就好吧~)

The extent and circumstances under which the HR strategies and practices of lead firms will extend to suppliers in the larger network. A key pressure for centralization is the need for global HR policies to be consistent with the global business strategies of the lead firm (Decentralization) local pressure in the form of legal, cultural, and labor market institutions exert pressure for the decentralization of HRM across the chain. Cases:

Global Automobile Industry
Global Logistic Chains Example (Toshiba/UPS, Lenovo/Nedloyd) Software Chain Example
Implications:
Decentralization: Country Specific Business Strategies, Local Isomorphism, complexity of managing distributed workforces, political dynamics Centralization: Alignment with Global Business Strategy, Regional Coordination, Embeddedness in Country of origin, political dynamics Why regulate labor standards globally?

-Failure of National Systems to implement labor standards
-Growing social pressure for regulation in a global environment -Growing consumer pressure for ethically produced good and service -Inability of trade unions to provide protections
Multilateral Approaches to Labor Standards Regulation:
Linking trade and labor standards...