Psychology

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Chapter 11 Questions: Theories of Cognitive Development
1. What does it mean that we need to hybridize in terms of understanding cognitive development? Taking into consideration the growing magnitude of insights from cognitive neuroscience, the future of cognitive developmental hypothesizing seems likely to follow a ‘hybrid route’. Respectively, current theories of cognitive development need to recognize the significance of knowledge construction, emphasized by Piaget, along with the social world, mainly focused on by Vygotsky. Furthermore, modern theories have to be consistent with biological limitations regarding how the brain really learns. 3. How would Piaget explain the 30 month old child who sits in his/her high chair and repeatedly drops and watches Cheerios fall to the floor? Piaget would explain this as the third sensory-motor stage which he identified as secondary circular reactions. Likewise, secondary repetitive behaviors involve the outside world. For instance, a child may seek to recreate interesting events in their surrounding environment, such as dropping an object. Thus, the circular reaction would be to repeatedly drop the object without getting bored. In this particular case, the repeatedly dropped object would be Cheerios. 5. What did Piaget mean by the interiorization of action? What would Vygotsky say it means? According to Piaget, the interiorization of action would refer to the final stage of sensory-motor cognition in which the child is able to anticipate the consequences of certain actions. Hence, the child is able to work out the sequence of actions required to attain a desired goal prior to performing the actions themselves. Specifically, this anticipation occurred through mental combination of the actions and their consequences without the need for trial-and-error exploration. Therefore, the interiorization of actions, or schemes, marked the cognitive representation of actions and their results. Moreover, these...
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